Complementary medicine does not usually treat the symptoms, but begins with the causes. Thus diagnostics which permit a look behind the symptom picture on the surface acquire a corresponding relevance.

A useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool is the Electro-Acupuncture according to Voll. It enables the technical measurement capture of functional sequences and energetic states in the organism and the individually determinable application of therapeutically effective substances.

Definition of Electro-Acupuncture according to Voll

The Electro-Acupuncture according to Voll (EAV) medical diagnostic system is a comprehensive, complementary procedure which broadens the knowledge base of physicians, dentists and naturopaths.

At precisely located anatomical skin areas electro-physical measurements are carried out. The current energetic state of the patients can be understood with this as well as the regulations dynamic of the organs, sub-systems and systems of the human organism. Besides it succeeds in uncovering mutual dependencies, disturbances and blockages of the regulation mechanism.

The individually specific illness factors which disturb the regulation ability of the organism are understood through resonance coupling with test signals. The therapy occurs predominantly by means of medications and substances which were previously tested for effectiveness. Homeopathic preparations are in the foreground. Additionally for dental questions, the therapy can consist of a specific, individual suitable material choice or of necessary surgical measures.

The goal of the EAV medical system therapy is the re-establishment of the physiological regulation ability of the organism.

Historical Background

In the 1950’s Dr. Reinhold Voll tried to make the energetic events of acupuncture transparent. In cooperation with the engineer Fritz Werner he constructed a device which allowed resistance or conductance measurements of the classical acupuncture points (Fig. 1).

Figure 1: Prinicple of Measuring

Voll’s idea was to enable a technically understandable inquiry into the energetic status, a basis for Chinese diagnosis and therapy.

Acupuncture and Electronics

According to Chinese acupuncture teachings, acupuncture points thread themselves like pearls on a string which is represented by the meridians. Acupuncture points have relationships or connections with organs or organ parts. By stimulating the acupuncture points the acupuncturists try to have an influence on the healing of the organs.

Measuring Results

Through practical testing on the acupuncture points, Voll and Werner measured another electrical behavior in the surrounding skin. Additionally it can be proven that the height of the resistance values changes in a typical manner during the course of an illness.

EAV measurements show that the measuring values on the acupuncture points give an explanation about the strength of the illness
burden and the course of the illness in the affiliated organs.

Organ relationships

Through measurements with his specific measurement technology Voll gained not only deeper insights into the dynamic of the psychic and physical illness processes, but also into the general and individual linking of the internal organs together. Particularly the basic interaction between the teeth and other parts of the human organism were absolutely new at that time. Subsequently they have been very much proven.

The investigation and systematization of these relationships, which are of essential significance for a large number of chronic illnesses, belong to the pioneer feats of Voll, his co-workers and his successors.

Moreover, Voll discovered and defined additional measuring points which until then were unknown to classical acupuncture teaching. Today they are an indispensable component of EAV diagnostics. In 1955 the so called resonance test or the medication test phenomenon was discovered (see below). He opened an absolutely new, successful field for Electro-Acupuncture.

Explanation models

Supported by the groundbreaking knowledge of that time from the Austrian scientist Alfred Pischinger (Gundregulation nach Pischinger), and the electro-technical knowledge from electromagnetic resonances and resonance coupling, Voll and his co-workers were positioned on increasingly surer ground with the energetic concept of Electro-Acupuncture and discovered through the empirically found effectiveness of the method the first understandable explanation model.

This model takes as a starting point the fact that burdens of all kinds (chemical, physical, bacterial, viral, toxic foods, etc.) allow residues to develop in the organs or organ parts which affect their functions (recognizable in the “overview measurement”, see below) and additionally (like all substances) generate electromagnetic emissions. If identical burdens are integrated as test substances into the measuring events, in ideal cases resonances can originate which normalize the previous pathological measured value (medication/resonance test).

Through investigations during the following years, particularly through those by Prof. Hartmut Heine (earlier at the University of Witten-Herdecke) which uncovered the morphological correlation of the acupuncture as well as the measuring points, Voll’s knowledge could additionally be effectively corroborated.

Technical prerequisites and measuring process

During the measuring process the patient holds an electrode with a large surface area in his hand, while the doctor contacts the relevant measuring points with his measurement stylus and measures their reaction to the measuring current of the measuring instrument.

Measuring points

EAV measurements take place at “electrically significant” points on the skin. Nevertheless, it is partly about classical acupuncture points as well as about a number of energetically relevant and system-coupled skin areas, which were discovered and classified by Voll and his coworkers.

For a comprehensive overview measurement for capture of all the control systems, a required choice of measurement points on the head, hands and feet is defined in standard measuring programs by the Internationalen Medizinischen Gesellschaft für Elektroakupunkture nach Voll (International Medical Society for Electro-Acupuncture according to Voll, IMGEAV). In this case all classical acupuncture meridians and relevant “acupuncture vessels” described by Voll are grasped.

EAV instruments

Measurement voltage and measurement current

The EAV device (Fig. 2) must show a middle measurement voltage of 900 millivolts (mV), and a measurement current between 5.5 and 11.25 microamperes (µA). The apparent ohmic resistance varies with the measurement process according to the momentary state of the system to be measured between 0 and 600 kilo ohm (kΩ).

Figure 2: A modern measurement place.

With such a technical device interpretation, it is guaranteed that not only the skin resistance is measured with the measuring process. Furthermore a more distinctly meaningful complexity is grasped for the regulation of a system’s essential factors. Amongst those are ion current changes in the subcutaneous tissue, electrical counter potential against the measurement current, momentary polarization behavior of the tissues, and electrolyte movements. Besides the electrophysical tissue qualities in the area of the measurement points, above all the measurement should deliver information about the regulation ability to the measuring point belonging to the control circuit.

Weak currents

It was recognized early that the use of lower dimensioned test/measurement currents collide with the body’s own electrical signals, so that after contact with these weak currents the affected human system releases intensive electrical correction reactions for several minutes. Remedy finding in a medical practice, which works under these conditions, with the usual testing of several hundred different substances for their effectiveness leads to insurmountable time-related boundaries.

Technical standards of IMGEAV

For this reason the technical characteristics of the measuring events which were already chosen from the beginning of EAV have proven themselves in practice to this day. Because single device elements change and further develop within the scope of technical development (e.g. introduction of transistors instead of tubes), the IMGEAV has determined to guarantee qualitatively high-quality and comparable measurement value technical standards whose fulfillment [during such] progress is supervised by certifications. The IMGEAV recommends the exclusive use of suitable measuring devices checked by it.

Contact Pressure

The covering pressure of the measuring probe for the measurement is of crucial importance. According to the texture of the skin, it has to amount to approximately 500-1500 Pond (p) (a compression spring mechanism or electronic pressure control). The so called “pressure measurement plateau” is found here. Measurements without this contact pressure deliver completely divergent values (the standard value with pressure free electrodes, e.g. hand-hand surface electrode measurements lie at 84 scale units, while the point measurement probe produces a standard value of 50 scale units).

According to Global Scaling (basis: qualities of protons as a stable component of matter) external states are measured by the pressure free measurement, however the internal states in the cells and in the organism are measured by the pressure measurement. The external states (e.g. excitement as a result of a lie with change of the skin resistance – see also Lie Detector) are not relevant for EAV, however internal states (e.g. excitement as a result of persistent conflicts with change of the cell physiology and origin of an illness – psychosomatic illness) are extremely important.

Measuring scale

During the measuring period of some seconds the conductance behavior in the measurement point is observed by the EAV user as an answer to the stimulus exerted by the measuring current. This conductance (reciprocal value of the ohmic resistance) is read off on a scale. The scale used in EAV is set up virtually logarithmic and scans over a range between 600 kΩ and 0 Ω. For simplified reading the scale is divided into 100 division lines, where the scale status “0 division line” corresponds to a resistance of more than 600 kΩ and the scale status “100 division line” to a resistance of 0 Ω. The scale status “50 division line” represents 95 kΩ.

With repeated measurements on healthy people the value of “50 scale units” has turned out as the physiological healthy point. It is “the
prominent and diagnostically strived for measurement value.

Calculations according to the guidelines of Global Scaling show the optimal measuring values at 54 scale units. Because of this modern computer aided calculation background, the practical research achievement of Dr. Voll is especially confirmed.

Indications for Electro-Acupuncture according to Voll

Indications for EAV

EAV is used with particular success for:

  • Allergies and autoimmune illnesses
  • Pain conditions (like neuralgia and cephalgia, particularly migraine)
  • Skin diseases (like neurodermatitis)
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Chronic mature infections
  • Cerebral insufficiency
  • Chronic liver, kidney and pancreas illnesses
  • Chronic stomach and intestinal illnesses
  • With tooth, mouth and jaw illnesses as well as
  • With intolerances compared with dental materials as well as
  • Questions in the area of industrial and environmental safety
  • Any questions of biological compatibility

Utilization of EAV occurs under these points of view:

  • System theory
  • Etiology, and
  • Regulations Medicine

It is applicable in nearly all medical specialties and, as a result of its complementary approaches in illness origins and illness maintenance for psychic and physiological problem cases, therapeutic successes are possible which up to now were hardly accessible.

The following listing of diagnostic concepts is a choice. It is only exemplary in character because these diagnoses only take into consideration the ill organ/organ system corresponding to school [orthodox] medical classification, but however have no relation to the individual multicausal origin of every illness or to the systemic organ relationships.

Boundaries of Electro-Acupuncture according to Voll

The explanatory power of EAV diagnostics and the efficiency of the therapeutic measures is limited by:

  • Extremely disturbed regulations ability of the entire organism, e.g. as a result of higher psychic problem fields
  • Anatomical structural changes
  • Special genetic developments

The boundaries of the method arise from these and from the necessity for acute medical care.


Evaluation of the measurement results occurs corresponding to the models of system theory (all parts of a system are tied together with each other “systemically” and they influence each other) and to cybernetics (physiological control circuits hold the integrated parameters in spite of changing external influences by constant regulation variations) taking into account the knowledge of classical acupuncture physiology and the academic teachings. A corresponding knowledge of these fields is therefore a requirement for the implementation of the appropriate standards of Electro-Acupuncture diagnostics and therapeutics according to Voll.

The goal of EAV diagnostics is to uncover disturbances of the regulation behavior of the single control systems, and not the morphological changes.

As a rule because external influences (stress of all kinds – chemical, physical, psychic, pathogens, oversupply and undersupply of external and internal parameters, etc.) precede the morphological changes in the body and in the cells as an adaptation reaction, EAV can also be used successfully as a warning and preventive system.

Divergences from the normal “50 scale units” are evaluated as an expression of control circuit disturbances in the cybernetic sense. These divergences are recognizable in the absolute pointer state [Indicator level] and/or in the different pointer [Indicator] behavior.

Evaluation of the measurement values

The Indicator level, i.e. the measurement value at which the Indicator in the course of the measuring process comes to a standstill,

  • Can reach values from 0 up to 100 scale units (electrical short circuit), this corresponds to a massive pathological activity in the accompanying tissue,
  • However can deflect only up to 10 scale units in some circumstances, this corresponds to an energetic zero level, an “energetic burn-out existence”.

Additionally, the Indicator behavior provides information about the strength of the control systems under longer burden. If the Indicator reaches a highest value during the measuring events lasting several seconds and afterwards again drops off on the measuring scale (Indicator Drop according to Voll), it is valid as another pathological criterion because the system is not able to absorb the shock of the stimulus of the measuring current.

Physiological values

Stable measurement values at 95 kΩ and a little above – corresponding to a scale level of 50 division lines and slightly over it – are an expression of undisturbed physiological relations in the respective control system. Measurement values between 50-80 are valid as so called “physiological variation ranges”, and they are evaluated only in the systemic connection with the remaining measurement values taking into account anamestic parameters.

Overview Measurement

The capture, documentation and evaluation of a big enough number of measuring data is necessary for a systemic assessment within the scope of the basic investigation (overview measurement). IMGEAV recommends the use of at least 120 measuring points, for which output approximately 10 minutes is sufficient time needed by an experienced user. This data must be raised from measurements on all relevant areas like acupuncture meridians and Voll’s “vessels”. Electrically active pathways are found on both sides of every finger/toe phalanx; traditionally in Chinese medicine some of these pathways are called “meridians”, for demarcation all other pathways Voll defined as “vessels”. An energetically sufficient overview is gainable only with capture of more than 100 measurement points, while single measurements on meridians and vessels allow only a keyhole diagnostic. Many powerful pathological measurement values are found near the middle and proximal joints of the fingers and toes, far away from the prominent meridian ends or meridian beginnings on the nail fold points (Fig. 3).

From the point of view of the IMGEAV a measuring limitation to the nail fold points of the meridians on the fingers and toes is only a short test with course observations for laymen.

Figure 3: Measurement Process

Diagnostic / Therapeutic Medication Test (Resonance Test)

Evaluation of the energetic states and hierarching which organs, systems and subsystems must be treated therapeutically with priority, serves the second diagnostic step of medication or resonance test. It uncovers pathogenic factors like for example focus burdens, disturbance field burdens, intoxications from internal and environment, energetically problematic infection residues, deficiency states, allergies, intolerances and psychic loads. Moreover it opens the possibility to test a medication for compatibility with the individual patient, before it is administered against the diagnosed illness.


Electro-Acupuncture assumes from that, that a medication – mostly here it concerning nosodes, isopathics or homeopathics – sends out electromagnetic oscillations. With the medication test the patient holds an electrode in his hand and the doctor measures the varied test signals of the measuring device with the measuring stylus on the acupuncture point. Nevertheless additionally, now test medications are introduced into the measurement circuit in contrast to the overview measurement, as they are put into an interconnected ampule honeycomb (Fig. 4). By its presence in the test action the measurement value reacts either not at all or the measurement point shows the typical phenomenon of the resonance behavior with a “matching” signal, i.e. the measurement value changes in the direction of “50 scale units”.

Figure 4: Medication Testing

We aspire to achieve normal values (ideally the measurement value 50, corresponding to 95 kΩ) in all previously measured pathological points by comparison in each case with “matching” substances.

Only after balancing the measurement values on all regulation systems to these normal levels is the investigation concluded. The knowledge and the substances determined in this connection serve the diagnostics of pathological factors as well as the subsequent therapy.

Testing of medications

It occurs by Medication/Resonance testing using mainly nosodes and homeopathically processed basic materials of all kinds (isopathics) like pollutants, poisons, allergens, intermediary metabolism materials, and dental materials as well as homeopathic organ preparations along with vitamins and [Bach] flowers. Additionally the “classical homeopathics” are examined for their qualitative and quantitative effect as drainage remedies and as constitutionally-psychically effective remedies with regard to the choice as well as to the most effective potency.

Testing of materials

As a specific variation of the medication test it is possible to test incorporated or still to be incorporated materials (for example from the dental area such as denture sets or dental filling materials – e.g. amalgam, gold inlays) for their energetic effect on the body, to evaluate affected teeth individually and to identify or exclude them as a cause of regulation problems. In this manner a qualified, goal-directed dental treatment can be guaranteed.

Human control system

The human being has at his disposal approximately 1015 cells. In every cell approximately 1015 parameters are changed per second. In what manner these 1030 parameters of the body are regulated in each second, is largely unknown. Until now, knowledge existing about the subsystems (e.g. immune system, endocrinological system) is only rudimentary. In practice the human control system can balance out a huge number of pathogenic factors, provided it is not oversteered (too many factors) and/or is exhausted (few factors however too long having an effect).

Besides the main factors which cause an illness “copycat offenders” are often found (as a rule illnesses are due not only to the strength of one or more “aggressors”, but the defensive ability of the “defenders” plays a co-crucial role – “the cause is nothing, the terrain is everything”). In this connection it concerns stresses, which are measureable, which nevertheless could be endured by a strong control system without serious restrictions of functions (even a child is able to hit a boxer unhindered who has been knocked out by his opponent and does not defend himself anymore). The EAV user must therefore identify and hierarch all stress factors on their importance in the individual patient context. Important therapeutic parameters are taken into consideration, however unimportant [ones] can be ignored and remain separated from the therapy.

Systemic co-burdens

As part of the medication tests, medication hierarching is necessary by constant control of the urgently affected measurement points. Also the causality of the systemic co-burdens must be clarified by the medication test. The answer to the question “Who is the offender, who is the victim?” belongs here. E.g. an infected incisor supports a chronic bladder inflammation, or is the bladder inflammation causally responsible for the unstoppable progress of the caries in the incisor? The following therapeutic main focus can be worked out and varied on the basis of this specific information.

Digitalized test substances

On account of the varied illness causes extensive and differentiated test materials are provided for the EAV user for the medication test. In the course of the medication tests he confronts the organism with these test materials by bringing the electromagnetic patterns into the measurement circuit and observes the reaction on the measuring point. Because of progress in computer technology electromagnetic signals of the test substances have been digitized for nearly 20 years and are held ready on the computer hard drive for use with the medication test as a substitute for the previous test ampules.

During recent years the EAV test pathway has considerably accelerated with the use of computers and digitized measuring ampules. Handling of test ampules in the daily practice could almost be given up completely. By this test change medications without influence are identified and effective medications are used therapeutically by being prescribed from the pharmacy.


Therapy in Electro-Acupuncture can occur with the help of a stimulus current and/or medications.

Stimulus current

Through application of different stimulus current qualities it is possible to balance the divergent measurement values in the direction of the normal value (50 scale units) on larger areas with help from roller or surface electrodes as well as on smaller areas with point electrodes on pathologically changed skin areas. Of current interest, the application of a point electrode for stimulation of a meridian is taken up and varied by “augmented acupuncture” (in every bladder meridian a single acupuncture needle is placed at neck height which subsequently is massively electrically irritated – activation of the adrenal gland for hay fever therapy).

Medicinal therapy

During the last 50 years the medicinal therapy form is predominantly chosen by EAV users. For this purpose as a rule the prescription of a combination of nosodes, isopathics, homeopathics and potentized organ preparations takes place. Each of the medications was previously checked individually with the resonance test for its regulatory influence and its hierarchy.


In the case of intolerances the patient is instructed to avoid or to substitute all specific foods, work and environmental materials. If this is not possible, try to stabilize the “suffering” organ through “supporting” medications so that it is able to cope with the consecutive burden.


The pharmacy [delivered] medication is administered for a period of several months. The frequency and amount of taking can be varied according to the reaction of the patients; they are determined by the therapist in coordination with the patients.

Further measures

If the test protocol reveals the need for further specialized measures, the patient is well informed about that and corresponding steps are initiated.

An Exclusive Translated Article for Members
From THE BRIDGE Newsletter of OIRF
Published February 2011

From a supplement to Erfahrungsheilkunde, 4/2010, Band 59
From the Haug Report | Technical Equipment Procedures
Machine Translation by SYSTRAN, Lernout & Hauspie, LogoMedia & Promt
Translation & redaction by: Carolyn L. Winsor, OIRF

© Copyright 2010, Dr. med. Richard Kraßnigg/Haug, Neunkirchen Seelscheid, Germany

About the author

Specialist in general medicine, acupuncture, homeopathy with a focus on individual holistic medicine, hypersonic diagnostics and therapy. Additional qualifications in ear acupuncture, body acupuncture, Electro-Acupuncture According to Voll (EAV), various complementary medicine methods and training in fractal mathematics and fractal geometry. President of the “International Society for Electro-Acupuncture according to Voll from 2000-2014.


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